- Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
- Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
- Final approval of the version to be published; AND
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Changes in authorship
Submission of Manuscript
Authors should read the “Instruction for Authors” on the journal’s page before making a submission. Manuscript should be prepared according to the style and specifications of the journal’s policy. Authors listed on the manuscript should have met the requirements for Authorship specified above. Where possible, specify the contribution of each of the authors. All authors should approve the final version of the manuscript prior to submission. Once a manuscript is submitted, it is therefore assumed that all authors have read and given their approval for the submission of the manuscript. Contact information of all authors should be stated on the manuscript. Surname/Other names, affiliation, emails, and phone/fax numbers. Declaration of Conflicts of Interest should be stated in the manuscript. Submission should be made online http://manuscript.prudentjournals.org/
Conflict of interest
“Conflict of interest (COI) exists when there is a divergence between an individual’s private interests (competing interests) and his or her responsibilities to scientific and publishing activities such that a reasonable observer might wonder if the individual’s behavior or judgment was motivated by considerations of his or her competing interests” WAME. Authors should disclose all financial/relevant interest that may have influenced the development of the manuscript. Reviewers should disclose any conflict of interest and if necessary, decline the review of any manuscript they perceive to have a conflict of interest. Editors should also decline from considering any manuscript that may have conflict of interest. Such manuscripts will be re-assigned to other editors.
Peer review process
The review process is an important aspect of the publication process of an article. It helps an editor in making decision on an article and also enables the author to improve the manuscript. Prudent Journals operates a double blind review process. Author(s) identity is removed from the manuscript and shielded from the reviewers during the review process. The reviewer is left with only the manuscript without any information that might enable him/her uncover the identity of the author(s). Information removed includes the author(s) name, address/affiliation, country, phone/fax and email. Any information in the Acknowledgement and Declaration of Conflict of Interest that may lead to the uncovering of the identity of the author is also removed from the manuscript prior to sending it to reviewers. Manuscripts are assigned to members of the editorial board of the journal or other qualified reviewers. The review process is done using the Manuscript Management System. Reviewers make one of the following recommendations:
- Accept As Is
- Requires Minor Corrections
- Requires Moderate Revision
- Requires Major Revision
- Submit To Another Publication Such As
- Reject on grounds of (Please be specific)
A Review Certificate is issued to reviewers after the review of the manuscript. The review reports are sent to the authors. However, reviewers’ identity is removed from the review reports. The author(s) is left with only the review reports/recommendation without any information that might enable him/her uncover the identity of the reviewers. A minimum of two review reports are required per manuscript. On receipt of the author(s) revised manuscript, the original manuscript, the revised manuscript and the review reports are sent to the editor. The editor makes one of the following decisions:
- The Manuscript Requires Improvement
Only an editor has the authority to “Accept” or “Reject” a manuscript. If a manuscript is “Accepted”, an Acceptance Certificate is issued to the author(s) and the manuscripts are processed for publication. If a manuscript is rejected, the authors are informed of the decision and no further processing is done on the manuscript. If a manuscript requires improvement, it is sent to the author(s) with the editor’s recommendation for further revision. The editor makes a final decision on the revised to “Accept” or “Reject” the manuscript.